I have been working on my website lately and have been including the Moh Scale of Hardness as part of the description. My father was looking over my website, and asked me what the Moh Scale was. I tried to explain it to him, and thought maybe you would like to know as well. It is important to know the Moh Scale for jewelry to determine how durable the stone is, and how you would wear the piece of jewelry. For example you may not want to wear a soft stone as ring, since we are usually hard on our hands and a soft stone would scratch easily, but you could wear a softer stone as earrings.
In 1812 the Moh’s scale of mineral hardness was devised by the German mineralogist Frederich Mohs (1773-1839). He selected the ten minerals because they were common or readily available. The scale is not a linear scale, but somewhat arbitrary.
Some minerals are very soft; others are very hard. The degree of hardness is an aid in identifying the minerals. Diamonds are harder than quartz and will therefore scratch quartz, quartz will scratch calcite, calcite will scratch gypsum, and so on. To help identify minerals, geologists have assigned numbers to the hardness of several minerals. In this hardness scale, the softer minerals are assigned a low number and the harder minerals a higher number.
In the field, an easy way of estimating the hardness of a mineral is by trying to scratch it with common objects such as a fingernail with a hardness of 2.5, a penny is the hardness of a 3, or a pocketknife, hardness 5.5. Glass has a hardness of slightly less than 6 and will scratch most minerals. Anything on the Moh’s scale that is less than a 7 is easily scratched.
Hardness Mineral Associations and Uses
2.5-3 -Gold, Silver
3 -Copper penny
5.5- Knife blade
6.5- Iron pyrite
7+- Hardened steel file
To test a mineral for hardness, try to scratch it with one of these common objects. For example, a sample can be scratched by the knife (H=5.5) but NOT by the penny (H=3). Therefore, the sample has a hardness of about 4. Using other property tests that you will learn in lab, you then determine that the mineral is calcite.
The Moh’s Scale of Mineral Hardness goes as follows….
1 is Talc- Talcum powder.
2 is Gypsum- Plaster of Paris. Gypsum is formed when seawater evaporates from the Earth’s surface
3 is Calcite- Limestone and most shells contain calcite
4 is Fluorite- Fluorine in fluorite prevents tooth decay.
5 is Apatite- When you are hungry you have a big “appetite”.
6 is Orthoclase- Orthoclase is a feldspar, and in German, “feld” means “field
7 is Quartz
8 is Topaz- The November birthstone. Emerald and aquamarine are varieties of beryl with a hardness of 8.
9 is Corundum- Corundum Sapphire and ruby are varieties of corundum. Twice as hard as topaz.
10 is Diamond- Used in jewelry and cutting tools. Four times as hard as corundum
Sea glass is on a Moh scale of a 6-7 and that is why I do not recommend sea glass for rings. We are extremely hard on our hands and wrist and tend to bang them around, and as we all know glass will break. I do recommend using seaglass in pendants or in earrings.
Delaware Bay Diamonds are clear quartz crystals and have a Moh scale of a 7 and is fine to make jewelry out of.
How to Perform the Test
1. Select a fresh surface
2. Hold the sample and attempt to scratch it with the point of an object of known hardness, start at the higher (harder) end of the scale and work down. In this example, we use a sharp quartz crystal (Hardness = 6)
3. Press the object firmly but lightly against the unknown sample
4. If the test object is harder, you should see and feel a definite “bite” into the sample
5. Inspect for an etched line
In this case, we notice a deep scratch in the sample, which indicates it’s hardness is less than 6 . Repeat several times, always with a sharp point and a fresh surface.
You Might Be A Rockhound If…
As you are driving around town or stroll down Second Street Downtown Historic Lewes, Delaware you may have noticed a new twist to the Lewes Coat Of Arms, which hang from the flag poles in the Spring.
Michele designs and crafts wire-framed jewelry. Typically customers in her shop pick out the stone from among hundreds of different semi-precious stones in her collection and she custom wraps in silver or gold wire to form a pendant, pin, earrings, or ring. Upon researching her craft, Michele discovered roots in some of her designs in the 17th century Holland. To commemorate Lewes’ Dutch heritage, she designed a ring made entirely of wire using a braided pattern from this time period.
Marsha Holler is a graphic artist who like to say all her designs tell a story. When Michele mentioned she had an idea for a graphic design that brought together Lewes’ Dutch English and American heritage, the ladies brought it quickly to life.
The earliest European settlers of the Sussex County coast were 32 Dutch men who arrived aboard the ship “Walvis” in April 1631. They called the spot Swanendael, later spelled Zwaanendael, or Valley of the Swans. The second settlers called the place Hoorn, after their home in Holland. The name changed often in the beginning. In 1682, Delaware was conveyed to William Penn by the English Duke of York and Lewes received its present name in honor of the town of the town of the same name in England. It is pronounced Loo-iss.
The Coat of Arms that the City of Lewes uses on its police cruisers and on City Hall is actually from Lewes, East Sussex, England. It’s origins date back to the Norman Conquest a thousand years ago. The gold and blue checkers are the arms of the de Warenne family who held the Barony of Lewes from the time of the Norman Conquest until 1347, when the last de Warenne died.
A nephew, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, succeeded to the barony and added the gold lion on the red ground. The introduction of the silver crosslets has never been satisfactorily explained
they will probably remain a subject for speculation.
Tulips, like wooden shoes and windmills, are known all over the world as an emblem of the Netherlands. The humble flowering bulb had its origins in Persia and began trading throughout Europe The tulips were soon distributed throughout Holland. This was the beginning of the Dutch bulb business. Early in the 17th century, rich Dutchmen, Englishmen, and Frenchmen were competing with each other for these prize status symbols. Tulip appreciation became tulip-love, which then became what has come to be known as tulip-mannia.
Tulips were first sold in the 17th Century Netherlands by way of trade from Turkey and Russia. Where they had been cultivated for a long time. New varieties developed quickly including ones with flame like petals that were a result of disease. Whether solid color or patterned, their relative ease of cultivation made the demand for tulips far greater than the supply. Thus the “Tulip-mania” phenomena where ridiculously high prices were commanded for bulbs of the once humble wild tulip lower from Central Asia. The Netherlands are still today, after almost 400 years still identified with growing and supplying the world with the greatest variety of tulips.
Crawling on the tulip is a lady bug. Millie Rust-Brown’s second grade class from Lulu Ross Elementary School in Milford, Delaware studied state insects, and discovered that Delaware did not have a state insect. After much discussion, the class wrote then-governor Sherman Tribbertt with the request that the Ladybug become Delaware’s State Insect. With the help of some local high schoolers they took it to the Legislators. Rep. Lewis B. Harrington introduced the House bill number 667, on March 9, 1974. On April 25,1974 the Ms. Brown’s class dressed up as ladybugs, and walked the halls of Leg Hall. The vote was unanimous the lady bug was adopted as our state bug.
The idea of combining these three elements the Lewes Coat of Arms, the tulip and the ladybug to form a visual link to Lewes’ past. Separately it is just a shield, a flower, and a bug, but after reading about Delaware’s and Lewes’ fascinating past the three elements are symbolic. The shield is official governance, the tulip is agriculture and the ladybug is natural beauty; all still present in Lewes.”
The inspired graphic design is available on various merchandise exclusively at Sand N Stones. Lewes Insignia was designed and Copyrighted by Michele J. Buckler in 2006. In 2010 it became the official Logo for the Lewes Chamber of Commerce’s Tulip Festival.
The Coat of Arms is seen throughout Lewes in many diffrent places. It was first used by Col. David Hall Chapter, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) in the early 1950’s when they used the seal to mark historical significant buildings in the History of Lewes, Delaware. The History of Lewes Delaware book was published in 1956 and a revised edition appeared in 1981. The Chapter requested permission to use the Coat of Arms from the official of Lewes, East Sussex, England. The Police and Fire Department as well as City Hall all use the Coat of Arms in Lewes, Delaware.
The City Flag of Lewes also uses the Coat of Arms Seal in the center of the flag. The flags blue and white background also has some historic significance. The original Lewes, Delaware settlers traveled from the Netherlands town of Hoorn in the North Holland province. The Hoorn’s people first sailed South to the town of Veere, in the Zeeland Province. The flags background was adopted from the flag of Zeeland Province, (its name translated is “sea land”) since the Zeeland people share the affinity for the love of the sea. The Hoorn’s people established the town of Lewes, Delaware in 1631.
The flag was designed by Alan Keffer a Lewes, DE resident. The flag was first used it 1991 and copyrighted in 1993 and was officially sanctioned as the city flag of Lewes, Delaware in 2005. Resource Lewes Delaware, Celebrating 375 years of History, by Kevin N Moore page 19 ISBN 0974899887
Presented by the Lewes Historical Society in Lewes, Delaware
Like collecting shells, fossils, or stones, ‘combing shorelines for sea glass is a hobby many beach-goers and beachcombers enjoy. Hobbyists often fill decorative jars with their collections and take great pleasure in sourcing out a shard’s original origin. Artisans craft beautiful, much sought after pieces of jewelry, stained glass and other decorative items from sea glass.
Sea glass can be found all over the world, but the beaches of the northeast United States, California, northwest England, Mexico, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Nova
Scotia, Italy and southern Spain are famous for their bounty of sea glass, bottles, bottle lips and stoppers, art glass, marbles, and pottery shards. The best times to look are during spring tides and during the first low tide after a storm.
Shards may also evidence a frosted side and a shiny side, most likely because they are pieces broken off from larger glass objects still embedded in mud, silt or clay, which are only slowly being exposed by wave action and erosion.
Sea glass has become a very collectible item in recent years and natural sea glass is becoming difficult to find. Due to the decline in naturally occurring sea glass because of greater environmental awareness, it is becoming more expensive and harder to find.
In addition to artisans from across the nation coming to Lewes with fabulous sea glass jewelry, art and decorative pieces, lectures will be given on Saturday about sea glass collecting, photograph and local maritime history.
In 2010 The Lewes Historical Society hosted the first Mid-Atlantic Sea Glass & Coastal Arts Festival attracting over 3,000 visitors to the event. The great sea glass artists will be joined by other coastal artists including decoy carvers and other waterfowl artists.
Hours for Artisans:
Saturday June 25, 2011 9 a.m. till 4 p.m. at the Historic Complex, Second & Shipcarpenter St. Lewes, Delaware
Sunday June 26, 2011 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. at the Historic Complex, Second & Shipcarpenter St., Lewes, Delaware
Where over 30+ Artisans from across the country, will be displaying their wares for sale.
I just found out that….. Due to scheduling issues, the 2011 Sea Glass Speakers Series has been canceled. We regret any inconvience.
Members from the Delmarva Antique Bottle Club will be on hand to help identify shards and their possible bottle origin. A shard exhibit and identification session will be held in the Midway School House at the Historical Complex.
Sea Glass Festival Package available at the Inn at Canal Square 302-644-3377
Sand N Stones will be hosting Mark’s Delmarvalous Kettle-Korn and Fresh Squeezed Lemonade, from Mark’s Kettle-Korn and Lemonade, on the Corner of 112 Front Street and the Lewes Post Office. Don’t forget to stop by Sand N Stones during the festival.
Holly will be there on Saturday selling local Delmarva beach glass. She has some true treasures please come by and check them out. If you have any pieces of Sea Glass that you own and would like to have wrapped, Michele will be inside Sand N Stones wire wrapping.
Advanced Tickets will be for sale at Sand N Stones and The Ryves Holt House Museum Shop beginning Memorial Day 2011. Passes are $5 and are good for both days of the show; passes will enable the bearer to avoid the lines to enter the events.
This is an Annual Lewes Historical Society Event, which takes place Last Weekend of June.
If you like this event you may also like the North American Sea Glass Association’s Festival
19th Annual Delmarva Antique Bottle, Sea Glass Show has been canceled for 2011
I have been interested in photography since I was in grade school. My both my Mother and Father are shutter bugs. My mother gave up photography several years ago due to some heath issues, but my father is still out there photographing, underwater as well as on land, and teaching Photoshop. There are people who come into my store that are interested in Photography from hobbyist to professionals. I have the opportunity to speak to many of them about photography. Some give me wonderful nuggets of information.
Many people ask me where are my favorite places to go shooting? There are so many wonderful spots to take pictures here on Delmarva If you like wildlife and nature here are just a few of my favorites.
If you like architecture, Delmarva has many historic and quaint little towns, that are great to go photographing in, a few of my favorites are.
Don’t forget that Delmarva Peninsula is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by Delaware and a small part of Maryland and Virginia. It’s also close to alot of other great places which are just a couple of hours away such as D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and New Jersey.
May I suggest that you join a camera clubs in the area which you live, in Delaware we have two that I am aware of
Judy Rolde has been offering photography classes and workshops on Delmarva since 2004. Some of her class include Digital Photography 101, Digital Intermediate, Digital Workflow, and Digital One On One. Delmarva Photo Safari to unique locations in the Delmarva area where photographers learn new skills while enjoying and affordable getaway. She takes people on 2 hour/ less than a mile Photo Walks combine historic ommentary with creative photography tips. Digital Phtography Expeditions, and Photo Scavenger Hunts.
There are also photography workshop at the Ward Museum in January, Kevin Fleming will be doing a presentation. Art in Nature Photography Competition
August 12, 13 & 14, 2011 The Ward Museum of Wildfowl Art, Salisbury University
Just a few ideas. If we band together, you may be able to car port with each other, and some of the events offer discounted group rates. Go For it! I hope to see you there!
I have been asked many times if I have any of my photographs on-line? my reply has been no, scared of the right-click thing. I asked a professional photographer one day what he does to get his work to be seen? He told me about Zenfolio.
In 1774, Captain James Hathorn was sailing a cargo ship from Bristol, England to Philadelphia. PA. It was carrying goods the colonists would need, including household items and building supplies. The ship ran into a nor’easter and ran aground. It was reported that the crew survived. However, on May 11, 1774 the Pennsylvania Gazette reported that the Severn was “ashore in our bay full of water and is thought will be lost.”
It was not until the Fall of 2004 while the U.S. Army of Corps of Engineers were doing some beach replenishment, a dredge sucked up many old artifacts and scattered it along the Lewes beach. Several beachcombers started finding these artifacts.
The State contracted The Southeastern Archaeological Research Inc., to explore the site and see if they could determine anything about the shipwreck and where these items originated. Some of the item found were….
*Mineral water (bottled by the “Selters” who is still in business today) shipped in trademarked stoneware bottles.
*Case Bottles from Great Britain and Europe. Square case bottles that fit into a partitioned box which held a variety of liquors and strong spirits.
*Round Bottle Glass, from Great Britain and Europe. It was used to hold a variety of liquids. Many were shipped empty to be reused.
*Some of the bottle shards that were traced to Groot Constantia, the oldest surviving winery in South Africa. The shards, bearing the embossed words, “Constantia Wyn,” Bottles embossed with this emblem were used in the period 1760 to 1840 and came from a farm currently known as Groot Constantia.
In 2005, in commemoration of the 320th anniversary of the founding of the estate, Groot Constantia introduced Grand Constance, a commemorative dessert wine similar in style to the wine that made the estate famous in the 18th century, and similar to the wine that was found in the Roosevelt Inlet’s Shipwreck’s cargo.
The winery is further exploring its association with Delaware. According to Naudé, the company has changed its packaging of Grand Constance, fashioning a bottle shape used in the late 18th century, and embossing with a replica of the “Constantia Wyn” emblem that was found in the Roosevelt Inlet Shipwreck. The wine, which is individually packed in a wooden box, includes an information sheet that covers its Delaware story. The repackaged wine will also be sold in the United States today.
*Other items found were personal items such as buttons, tobacco pipes, several pewter shoe buckle frames were found at site, not only did they secure the wearer’s shoes but they also were a fashion statement.
*Household, kitchen, and dining wares, such as German Blue-Grey Stoneware, Tin Glazed Earthenware, Red Earthenware, and German Brown Stoneware.
*Building Supplies such as window glass, slate roof tile, ceramic tile, bricks and nails.
*Also decorative metal objects inset with pressed glass stones most likely a pin or broach. were found.
Approximately 56,000 artifacts from Lewes Beach have been donated to the Delaware Department of State. A large selection of artifacts recovered from the Roosevelt Inlet Shipwreck site are on display at the Zwaanendael Museum in Lewes, Delaware.
According to The Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs (HCA) the shipwrecks origin remains uncertain, as the critical architectural components of the wreck are missing. The vessel, is thought to be the remains of the British commercial ship possibly the Severn, which would be the oldest-known shipwreck discovered in Delaware waters. The wreck site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on November 16, 2006.
From a sea glass collector’s perspective the glass that washes up on the Lewes Beach that I have found is not like most sea glass. It is very thin and has an olive green color with a thin iridescent covering that flakes off when dry. It is said to be caused by the minerals in the ocean water. It’s a kind of erosion or deposit, most likely a deposit. To preserve this unique quality, I spray a clear top coat protective finish over the glass, which will darken it about one shade.
That was not the only Severn that found trouble in Delaware Waters. On April 8, 1918 the tug, Eastern left New York for Norfolk Virginia with three barges, including the Merrimac, built in 1906 weighing 640 tons and the Severn a much smaller barge. A day after leaving New York the tug encountered stormy seas near the Delaware Cape and headed for safety of the Delaware Breakwater. By night fall the storm was getting worse. The Eastern, the Merrimac, and the Severn all tried to weather the storm but by morning the decision was made to “let go stern” meaning that the barges would be cut free and drop anchor to hold their own. However, the anchor was not set in time and the Merrimac and the Severn drifted ashore towards Rehoboth Beach. The Merrimac beached and was badly damaged. The tug was able to free the Severn and they continued their journey.
Bridget Warner, Site Supervisor, Zwaanendael Museum in Lewes, Delaware
Shipwrecks of the Delaware Coast, Tales of Pirates Squalls & Treasure by Pam George
Saving Delaware History, Historical and Cultural Affairs Doc number 20-06-10-03-04
Saving Delaware History, Historical and Cultural Affairs Doc number 20-06-08-03-01
I was looking through one of the books that I sell in the store… The World is Blue, How Our Fate And The Ocean’s Are One by Sylvia A Earle. Ms Earle is an oceanographer and Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. In her book she talks about how we have learned more about our oceans in the last 50 years, than ever before. She states that the changes that the ocean has endured has threatened the existence of life on Earth. How the planet is about to be on an irreversible environmental crisis, not just from the recent oil spill but also from wasteful fishing, pollution, and global warming. She offers suggestions and solutions that we need to act on now, before it is too late.
I am very much a nature lover. I have lived around the ocean my whole live, and have spent countless hours either playing in surf, snorkeling with the dolphins, photographing the shore birds, picking up sea glass, shells, or beach pebbles. After looking through the book, I began to think about how the water world and the land world are very connected. Not only by the animals that live in both land and sea, but also the food that we eat, the air that we breathe, and the relaxation and enjoyment that we get from beach combing.
The decorative weave in the Sailor’s wristlet was used in Turk’s Head Knots in sailing ship days. Traditionally the wristlets were made out of a cotton rope and waved. They were allowed to shrink on the wearer’s wrist to a snug fit. It is said that they would wear the wristlet in case if they fell overboard, it would aid the rescuers from their hands slipping off of the person in the water.
Today, it is a great memento from the beach, and always reminds me of summer. I remember as a child, my parents would always get me one to mark the beginning of the summer. The night before school started it was a tradition to cut it off, and only my tan line would remain.
On Tuesday, June 1, I took the donations that was collected to Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research in Newark, Delaware. I drove down this long shady road with large trees on both sides. The road dead ended at the Frink Center for Wildlife, the home of Tri-State.
When I walked into the building I saw this large glass window, where I saw a few of the staff members feeding four baby robins some water with a small paint brush that they dipped into the water and let the water drip into their mouths. I was then greeted by a staff member. I introduced myself and told her that I was bringing the donations that we collected from the Wildlife drive. They were very appreciative.
I asked for a tour the facility. She said that they do not allow visitors to walk around the grounds near the birds. They dont want the birds to get startled and possibly re-injur themselves or get use to humans. She did however, walk me up to the outside deck which over looked many of the birdhouses.
All of the birds at Tri-State are rescued, rehabilitated, than released back into the wild, except for one Ishta who is a Peregrine Falcon, who can not fly very well, so he has become a permanent resident at Tri-State.